Oshana Region is headed by the Regional Governor representing the office of the President and all government institutions. The region consist of eleven (11) political constituencies represented by Regional Councillors who amongst themselves elect the Chairperson of the Regional Council. At the local level, there are three (3) Local Authorities namely, Ondangwa, Ongwediva and Oshakati. Each local authority is represented by Local Authority Councillors, who amongst themselves elect a Mayor of the town.

In addition, there are three (3) traditional authorities namely; Uukwambi, Ondonga and Oukwanyama that serve as advisors on communal land and customary matters.